By David L. VanderZwaag, Cynthia Lamson
Ten essays deal with serious concerns in Arctic improvement interpreting the results for either policy-making within the North and the effect of that coverage on local humans. additionally they research advertisement proposals to strengthen and shipping hydrocarbons via environmentally delicate waters. Annotation co
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Extra info for Challenge of Arctic Shipping
Away from the coast of the wider channels, such as Viscount Melville Sound, tidal currents tend to be more circular, with the direction of flow rotating through 360 degrees on each cycle. Current patterns in the western part of the Northwest Passage are depicted in Figure 5 for the ice-covered ocean during spring. Surface flow in Barrow Strait and Lancaster Sound is illustrated in 30 Science Figure 5. General surface current patterns in Viscount Melville Sound and adjacent channels. Based on Greisman and Lake, 1978, and recent unpublished data.
Ice constitutes the most serious and challenging constraint to arctic marine shipping, impeding movement and threatening ships and cargoes. The following description of the marine environment emphasizes ice and attempts to show how tides, ocean currents, and waves affect the growth, decay, distribution, and movement of ice. Examples of the management of sea ice in support of marine shipping are given, and the prediction of sea-ice and iceberg movement is discussed. Not all aspects of sea ice are negative, for ice helps reduce the magnitude of waves and currents in the Arctic and often provides a convenient surface for aircraft, drilling platforms, and research activities.
The distribution of heat depends critically on late summer storms, which extract heat and mix remaining heat more uniformly in the water column and to greater depth. Freezing is thus first evident in shallow bays, where heat is extracted quickly from water of limited depth. Established sea ice grows directly in proportion to the degree to which latent heat associated with the formation of new ice transfers heat from the ice to the atmosphere. The latter heat flux will depend on the vertical thermal gradient (or temperature change per unit of ice thickness) and the thermal conductivity of sea ice.