Breve historia y antología de la estética by José María Valverde Pacheco

By José María Valverde Pacheco

Este libro, nacido de los angeles enseñanza, pero con esperanzas de interesar también a lectores libres de cursos y exámenes, sólo pretende ofrecer una mínima síntesis del desarrollo histórico de los angeles estética, sobre todo en su núcleo conceptual. En lo que se llama "ideas estéticas" se reúnen varias perspectivas, en cada momento: así, lo que dijeron los grandes filósofos sobre los angeles belleza y el arte -cuando no callaron sobre tal tema-, y lo que opinaron los propios hacedores o sus críticos inmediatos sin ambición filosófica; todo ello en el contexto de los angeles mentalidad de cada época y, claro está, teniendo como interés supremo l. a. realidad misma de lo estético, es decir, los hechos de las artes y de las letras. Sabemos que sobre estos hechos singulares se puede hablar interminablemente sin llegar a conclusiones fijas, pero se hacen aún más interesantes cuanto más los vemos sobre el trasfondo de las principles y l. a. sociedad en que se insertaron. Cada capítulo lleva, tras su sucinta exposición, una antología de textos típicos, cuyas traducciones -a veces más adaptadas que literales- son de nuestra propia responsabilidad si no se indica otra cosa. Acaso el designio principalmente informativo que ha movido esta obra no los angeles haya librado de sectarismos de diversa índole: querríamos que el más importante de ellos fuera l. a. oposición a los angeles tendencia contemporánea -ya señalada y fomentada por Hegel- a dar más valor a las principles generales que a los hechos y obras singulares.  

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Not only are the works formidably emotive but they stage the hero’s decline with memorable immediacy. Pain and the anxiety of knowing one’s grueling doom are represented with sensational acuteness by tense muscles, facial contortion, swollen veins and compositional stress. But through the excellence of this life-like performative element, the works transcend the dread of their subject matter. They are an artistic tour de force of sensory engagement. That is the one quality which tragedy does not require in bestowing upon the hero’s death the ritual values of sacrifice.

In the eucharist (a Greek word, meaning literally ‘good grace’) the worshipper not only admiringly remembers Jesus but figuratively shares the taste of his blood. The ceremony has a corporal dimension which replicates on a solemn and decorous level the shedding of blood and the other bodily torments suffered by Christ. In various epochs the wine has been felt as real blood passing down the throat, in accordance with the believer’s heartfelt experience. The nails were driven into Christ’s hands, and his flank was pierced in an awfully physical ordeal.

There is no authority for such a benediction, no text, no biblical archetype. It is a falsehood, a pretentious temerity that worldly people can pre-empt the judgement of God and effectively declare what is full of the Holy Ghost and what is not. 5 Iconoclasts considered that an object made of earthly matter can only be given the title of holy if analogous to the eucharist. When the elements of bread and wine effectively become body and blood, they are sanctified by a great mystery. The elements transcend their materiality by the direct agency of God.

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