By Paul Gepts, Thomas R. Famula, Robert L. Bettinger, Stephen B. Brush, Ardeshir B. Damania, Patrick E. McGuire, Calvin O. Qualset
The creation of plant and animal agriculture represents some of the most vital milestones in human evolution. It contributed to the advance of towns, alphabets, new applied sciences, and finally to civilizations, however it has additionally provided a risk to either human overall healthiness and the surroundings. Bringing jointly study from a number fields together with anthropology, archaeology, ecology, economics, entomology, ethnobiology, genetics and geography, this booklet addresses key questions in terms of agriculture. Why did agriculture increase and the place did it originate? What are the styles of domestication for vegetation and animals? How did agroecosystems originate and unfold from their destinations of starting place? Exploring the cultural features of the improvement of agricultural ecosystems, the e-book additionally highlights how those themes will be utilized to our knowing of up to date agriculture, its long term sustainability, the co-existence of agriculture and the surroundings, and the improvement of latest vegetation and forms.
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Additional resources for Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability
As early as 1930 the anthropologist Julian Steward drew attention to one such mode of intervention in a paper he provocatively entitled “Irrigation without agriculture”, in which he described how the Paiute people of Owens Valley, east of the Sierra Nevada in California, annually built temporary dams and dug ditches to water and enhance the growth of wild plants that provided staple foods (Steward 1930, and see below). Since then, study of ethnographic and historical Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability, edited by P.
Americans who keep tamed zebras insist that their reputed nastiness has been exaggerated. If we would just be patient and breed them for a few decades, they would become gentle: that has already happened recently with Arctic foxes, which in just a few decades of selective breeding in Russia in the twentieth century became gentle domesticated fur-bearing foxes. But the fact that you can quickly select one animal species for gentle behavior doesn’t mean that you can quickly select any animal species for gentle behavior.
There are two caveats, however, in the search for the wild ancestor. First, the analyses are based on the current distribution of the wild ancestor, which may or may not be the same as during the initial phase of domestication. Second, the similarities identified by molecular markers may be due not only to ancestor– descendant relationships, but also to gene flow from the domesticated to the wild gene pool. This type of gene flow is more frequent than generally assumed (Ellstrand et al. 1999). Because agriculture represents a production system in which several crops (and farm animals) are assembled, joint information about the origin of the crop and animal components is necessary to fully understand the development of agriculture.