By Gary A. Flandro, Howard M. McMahon, Robert L. Roach

Within the swiftly advancing box of flight aerodynamics, it is necessary for college students to totally grasp the basics. this article, written through popular specialists, sincerely offers the fundamental recommendations of underlying aerodynamic prediction technique. those suggestions are heavily associated with actual rules so they might be extra without difficulty retained and their limits of applicability are totally preferred. the last word objective is to supply the coed with the required instruments to optimistically strategy and resolve of useful flight motor vehicle layout difficulties of present and destiny curiosity. The textual content is designed to be used in direction in aerodynamics on the complicated undergraduate or graduate point. A entire set of workout difficulties is integrated on the finish of every bankruptcy.

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**Example text**

You consider yourself an experimentalist and do not have much use for theoreticians and their incessant equations. However, you fully understand the thinking that led to Eq. 10. You know that there are five key variables. You also understand geometrical similarity, so you proceed to build a scale model of the airplane to be tested in the wind tunnel. Now, if you are not armed with the right theoretical understanding, you probably will think that it is necessary to vary all five of the variables to obtain a full set of data describing how the forces on the wing vary with speed, density, viscosity, size, and so on.

90 Solution: The drag coefficient can be found from: CD = m Dm 1 ρV V2S 2 m m , where the subscript, m, refers to the model. 120 m 2 . 10 10 34 Physics of Fluids Thus, the drag coefficient is CDm = 13 . 55 Dm , Vm2 which is dimensionally correct if the drag measurements are inserted in newtons (N) and the velocity is measured in m/s. Because the kinematic viscosity for sea-level air is: µ m2 = 1 . 45 × 1 0 −5 , ρ s ν= the Re for the model based on the average chord is found from: Rm = ρ Vmcm 0 08 = Vm µ 1 .

Sea-level air is the working fluid for both the model and full-sized wings. Data from the test are shown in the table. 4 Required: (1) Sensitivity of the drag coefficient to the Re based on the average chord length; and (2) drag estimate for the prototype at a speed of 135 km/hr. Approach: Use the dynamic similarity principle. If the drag coefficient can be shown to be insensitive to the Re, then the model data can be applied directly in estimating the drag. 90 Solution: The drag coefficient can be found from: CD = m Dm 1 ρV V2S 2 m m , where the subscript, m, refers to the model.