By Joseph E. Aldy, Robert N. Stavins
With expanding greenhouse fuel emissions, we're launched into an remarkable scan with an doubtful end result for the way forward for the planet. The Kyoto Protocol serves as an preliminary step via 2012 to mitigate the threats posed by way of worldwide weather switch yet policy-makers, students, businessmen, and environmentalists have began debating the constitution of the successor to the Kyoto contract. Written through a crew of top students in economics, legislations and diplomacy, this ebook contributes to this debate by way of reading the advantages of six substitute overseas architectures for weather coverage.
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Extra info for Architectures for Agreement: Addressing Global Climate Change in the Post-Kyoto World
Bush Administration in the United States had declared that the United States would not ratify the Kyoto Protocol. The Government of Australia soon thereafter echoed its lack of support. Despite the withdrawal of these two countries, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force in 2005, having met the dual requirements that 55 countries had ratiﬁed the agreement and jointly accounted for 55 percent of 1990 Annex I emissions. Strengths and weaknesses of the existing international policy architecture The international climate policy architecture embodied in the Kyoto Protocol, building on the foundation provided by the UNFCCC, has been both lauded and criticized.
3ºC). 4ºC by 2100. The changing climate will result in a myriad of impacts. The sea level will rise, on average globally, about 20 to 60 centimeters through 2100. The severity and frequency of hurricanes, ﬂoods, droughts, and other extreme weather events may increase. Heat waves will become more common. Agricultural, ﬁshery, and forest productivity will change, with adverse impacts more likely with higher levels of warming. The ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria will expand. Some species of plants and animals, especially those inhabiting unique ecosystems, may be at risk as the climate changes, especially since the rate of change may exceed their capacity to migrate and adapt.
He rejects beneﬁt-cost analysis in setting long-term goals and instead embraces an indicative greenhouse gas atmospheric concentration target of 550 ppm. This long-term goal motivates his proposal for emission commitments more stringent over 2013–2017 than during the Kyoto commitment period – on average, 23 percent below 1990 levels during this second period. To expand the set of countries with commitments, Michaelowa advocates a graduation index, based on a country’s per capita income and per capita emissions, which would determine when a developing country would “graduate” to emission targets.