Analysis of Solids in Natural Waters by Thomas R. Crompton

By Thomas R. Crompton

The presence of poisonous natural and inorganic elements in rivers and oceanic sediments is partly because of man-made toxins. Their tracking by way of chemical research of oceanic, estuarine, and river sediments or of organisms dwelling within the respective ecosystems are of maximum significance. the aim of this ebook is to supply the chemist with all to be had info for the fast improvement and correct undertaking of those tools of research. Crompton's publication is the 1st publication which covers all types of samples together with dwelling organisms.

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PH Buffered Citrate-Dithionite. 3 g sodium citrate dissolved in deionized water to give a final volume of 1 000 ml) to 5-10 g of peroxide treated sample and heat with occasional swirling for 1 h at 80°C in an oven. 8 g citric acid dissolved in 11 of deionized water, extracted by shaking with 1 g ammonium pyrrolidone diethyldithiocarbamate, 100 ml ethyl propionate, and 50 g sodium dithionite, and re-extracted using only 100 ml of solvent) and hold at 80°C with occasional swirling for 3 h. If the solution temperature exceeds 80°C, insoluble sulfides will form.

At this point, the pH may be adjusted by adding acid or base. Such increased handling is less desirable, but use of a greater buffer capacity solution in such samples will only increase the matrix problems already introduced by high calcium concentrations. Sinex et al. [35] have also investigated the use of nitric-hydrochloric acid in the extraction of total elements from NBS SMS1645 standard river sediments prior to analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry. They claim a recovery of '95 % for chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead and 75 % recovery for iron, cobalt, and cadmium.

HCI 40 0 b 0 20 40 60 80 Pressure (PSIG) 100 120 Fig. 5 a, b CEM microwave digestion system Model MDS - SID; temperature-pressure relationship with: a concentrated nitric acid; b concentrated hydrochloric acid (from [57]). 43 44 River and Stream Sediments Hydrofluoric acid had to be eliminated by evaporation and perchloric acid was a serious interferent. A technique for the reduction of chemical interference in lead and nickel determinations was recommended, which consisted of matrix modification by ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ascorbic acid.

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