By Guanyu Wang PhD
A advanced illness contains many etiological and threat elements working at a number of levels―molecular, mobile, organismal, and environmental. The occurrence of such ailments as melanoma, weight problems, and diabetes are expanding in prevalence, urging us to imagine essentially and use a broader point of view to spot their connection and revolutionize remedies. the certainty of organic facts derived from learning illnesses will be more advantageous through theories and mathematical types, which make clear the massive photograph and aid to bare the overarching mechanisms that govern complicated organic phenomena.
Focusing on illnesses regarding mobile strength metabolism, similar to melanoma and diabetes, Analysis of complicated illnesses: A Mathematical Perspective provides a holistic process for illuminating the molecular mechanisms of those ailments and the evolutionary underpinning in their simultaneous epidemics. utilizing arithmetic to spot styles of deviation from normality, or the fit state―spanning a number of degrees from molecules to the organism―the writer identifies a number dynamical behaviors that correspond to both mobile body structure or pathology. He makes use of the knowledge from a number of degrees which will enhance a unified conception, including the invention that sure ailments may well stem from well-evolved, necessary mechanisms activated within the flawed context.
This e-book is split into 3 components. half I makes a speciality of the organismal point to explain common body structure and the way the physique as an entire meets its sensible requisites. half II addresses the subcellular, molecular point to clarify the organizing ideas of mobile biomolecules to satisfy the calls for of the organism. half III examines complicated ailments via combining details from the organismal point and the molecular point, supplying a paradigm that may be prolonged to the research of alternative different types of ailments.
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Extra resources for Analysis of Complex Diseases: A Mathematical Perspective
10) Taking the three stages together, the net reaction of glycolysis can be represented by Glucose + 2Pi + 2ADP + 2NAD+ → 2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2 O. 11) Note that two molecules of ATP are generated during glycolysis. The reaction reduces NAD+ to NADH. Because the amount of NAD+ is very limited in the cell, glycolysis cannot proceed for long if NAD+ is not regenerated. Therefore, the final process in the pathway is the regeneration of NAD+ through the metabolism of pyruvate. While the reaction from glucose to pyruvate is almost the same for most organisms, the fate of pyruvate is different.
Once across the intestinal barrier, they are reformed into triglycerides and packaged into chylomicrons or liposomes, which are directly absorbed by adipose tissues or processed by the liver first. On one hand, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the capillaries of adipose tissues hydrolyses triglycerides in the chylomicrons or liposomes. Fatty acids thus released are taken up into the adipocytes for storage. On the other hand, the liver processes chylomicron remnants and liposomes into various lipoprotein forms, in particular very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), which are then transported to the blood.
After a meal, the rising plasma glucose stimulates the pancreatic beta cells to secrete more insulin. The rising insulin activates AKT (also known as protein kinase B) through a molecular circuit known as the PI3K-AKT-TOR pathway (see Chapter 7). The activated AKT inhibits GSK and thus indirectly activates glycogen synthase. Insulin is thus a potent anabolic hormone promoting the synthesis of glycogen. 2 GLYCOGENOLYSIS Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. It consists of the following three steps.