By Alain Pecker
Over the last decade, the cutting-edge in Earthquake Engineering layout and research has made major steps in the direction of a extra motive research of buildings. Scientists have lengthy famous that earthquake layout is guided through displacements and deformations instead of forces. although as a result old history of structural engineers in static analyses, results of earthquake on buildings were considered as forces performing on the buildings. All almost immediately on hand layout development codes are built alongside those traces. Our wisdom of flooring movement features, earthquake geotechnical engineering, structural behaviour (design and numerical analyses) and version assessments have complicated to some degree the place it really is attainable to expect an important circulate from strength established layout methods to displacements established layout methods. even if displacement dependent analyses represent the kernel of so much learn courses, they've got now not but been integrated within the nation of perform.
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The equivalent damping ratio E is obtained either directly from the area of the hysteresis loop, or from the phase shift between the force and the displacement (eq. (8)). Data processing techniques described for field tests (cross correlation function) can be used to evaluate the phase shift. The cyclic triaxial test is also used for the evaluation of the cyclic undrained strength of sands. In that case, the test is performed under force, or better stress, controlled conditions. The test is pursued until failure of the sample by liquefaction occurs; during the test, the applied stress, induced strain and pore pressure are continuously recorded.
However to be fully efficient, and to allow for the use of conventional dynamic computer codes, the impedance functions which are frequency dependent (Figure 2) must be represented by frequency independent values. The sim- (DUWKTXDNH)RXQGDWLRQ'HVLJQ plest version of these frequency independent parameters is the so-called springs and dashpots assembly. From the published results, it appears that only under very restrictive soil conditions (homogeneous halfspace, regular foundations) can these dynamic impedances be represented by constant springs and dashpots.
The shear modulus (secant modulus) and the shear strain J are computed from these parameters. The equivalent damping ratio E is obtained either directly from the area of the hysteresis loop, or from the phase shift between the force and the displacement (eq. (8)). Data processing techniques described for field tests (cross correlation function) can be used to evaluate the phase shift. The cyclic triaxial test is also used for the evaluation of the cyclic undrained strength of sands. In that case, the test is performed under force, or better stress, controlled conditions.