A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to by Elizabeth Endicott

By Elizabeth Endicott

An illustrated heritage of the pastoral nomadic lifestyle in Mongolia, this ebook examines the numerous demanding situations that Mongolian herders proceed to stand within the fight over normal assets within the post-socialist unfastened marketplace period.

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In the Gobi Altai, there are exclusively mountain-based households that never nomadize out to the flatlands. Some wealthier Gobi households divide up, with a few herders pasturing the camels on the flats, while the others pasture the sheep, goats, and horses in the mountains. 40 A History of Land Use in Mongolia As in all such attempts at categorization, Simukov reminds us that there are factors not under human control that may alter such nomadic migrations, summertime drought and winter or spring zud primary among them.

Because the Yuan rulers required a constant flow of military recruits for conquests and for maintaining garrisons, many Mongolian herding encampments during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were reduced to populations of women, children, and the elderly. 20 The merging of these two disparate populations of Mongols who had lived in such diverse environments—one sedentary and one nomadic—was a recipe for disaster. Political instability was to ensue for centuries, as would-be khans made various attempts (mostly unsuccessful) to reunite quarreling factions.

42 Simukov developed a typology of nomadic migrations that explores such contrasts. The Khangai type of nomadism is characterized by summer camps sited at riverside meadows whose pasturage is replenished by the localized moisture. Khangai winter campsites, located at higher elevations (as noted earlier), are placed in high valleys that are shielded from cold winds but well exposed to sunshine. , Khovd and adjacent aimags) as the opposite of the Khangai type: winter camps were higher than summer ones.

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