A Guide to Speech Production and Perception by Mark Tatham

By Mark Tatham

What roles do the speaker and the listener play in verbal exchange methods? delivering an total approach view, this leading edge textbook explains how these operating within the region take into consideration speech. Emphasising contextual and environmental views, Tatham and Morton lead you thru classical and glossy phonetics along dialogue of cognitive and organic features of speech. In explaining speech production-for-perception and the connection among phonology and phonetics, this ebook exhibits the prospective purposes (such as language educating, scientific perform, and speech know-how) and the way those are correct to different disciplines, together with sociolinguistics, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and speech acoustics.

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The potential for vibration or oscillation is due to the size and shape of the cavity through which the air is flowing as it passes on its way either into the lungs (for ingressive sounds) or out of the lungs (for egressive sounds). For resonance to take place, the resonant frequencies due to the cavity size are ideally present already in the vibrating air flowing through the system. In egressive sounds the vibration already present is caused by the vocal cords as the air flows through the larynx, passing from the trachea below to the pharynx above.

Frequency and amplitude are the physical quantities measured in the characterisation of resonances and formants. Remember: resonance is the potential for vibration or oscillation of the various cavities; formants are the actual results of bringing resonance into play in speaking. Formants are important because listeners use their grouping in patterns to determine which sounds are being heard (see Chapters 7 and 8). FURTHERREADING Abercrombie, D. (1967), Elements of General Phonetics, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Speech sounds are produced by systematically modifying the airstream, which is usually egressive. As air moves from the lungs, the first area where modification can take place is the larynx, containing the vocal cords. The vocal cords are either held apart, allowing relatively free airflow into the supraglottal cavities, or they come together under tension, creating the conditions giving rise to glottal vibration or spontaneous voicing. This is what allows the phonological opposition of voiceless and voiced sounds.

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